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You've completed a draft (or several) of your text and are generally satisfied with its content and overall organization, but you'd like someone to review it for clarity and correctness. Depending on the characteristics of the text, general

copyediting considers and improves the following:




-Effectiveness of transitions

-Development of main ideas and supporting details

-Logical and clear inclusion of quoted material


-Syntax (word order and clarity)

-Subject-verb agreement

-Verb tense consistency

-Linguistic register (formality of tone)

-Word choice, wordiness



-Usage conventions (capitalization, punctuation)






You have an outline or an early draft of a project but would like advice about how to proceed. Are some sections of the text fully developed while others seem anemic? Are you unsure about how to put all the ideas together in a logical and coherent manner?


Substantive copyediting is helpful for writers whose work is in its earliest stages, such as outlines, preliminary drafts or early rough drafts, and who would benefit from suggestions regarding further development and support of their material as well as assistance with its organization and expression. My comments on the text  include specific questions for your consideration and concrete recommendations for revision of the overall document or of specific sections, depending on your needs. 


Your manuscript is ready for submission to the publisher or to an academic journal!  But before you send it, it would be helpful to have an objective, critical reader evaluate your text. Are your arguments convincing, your ideas logically presented, and your expression concise and polished? Do you have specific questions or concerns about the content, organization, or expression of your work?


I offer a critical evaluation of your completed manuscript and provide specific solutions to help make your text strong, seamless, and engaging. After carefully reading your text, I will prepare a written report of its strengths and weaknesses, along with specific recommendations for revision.




I have translated scholarly texts ranging from brief quotations by theoretical and literary sources of the eighteenth through twenty-first centuries through monographs authored by contemporary scholars in literary studies, history, art history, journalism and other humanities fields.  

As a translator, I provide an English rendering of your work that is faithful to your ideas, voice and style while accurate and polished in its expression.  






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